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osmotic trophozoite

Taxonomy and identification

Although taxonomic confusion in the literature regarding the genera of diplomonads that infect fish remains, ultrastructural characterization has brought much needed clarity. Studies using only light microscopy have assigned the piscine diplomonads to Hexamita , Octomitus and Spironucleus . However, transmission electron microscopy has confirmed that all piscine diplomonads examined to date, belong unequivocally to the genus Spironucleus . Using this approach, 5 species of piscine diplomonads are currently recognized: S. barkhanus , S. salmonicida , S. salmonis , S. torosa and S. vortens . All of these species have only been comprehensively characterized from fishes in northwest Europe. However, given the global diversity of fish species, and the importance of aquaculture in Asia, it is likely that additional distinct species will be described from other parts of the world in future.

Reference specimens: Table 1 summarises the type host, type locality, type material and Accession Numbers of the best described Spironucleus spp. from fish, although even this is incomplete. This is exemplified in a recent study, which demonstrates that S. salmonicida can be found in the intestine of wild Salmo trutta (Brown trout) and Salvelinus alpinus (Arctic charr) [ 58 ]. However, farmed Salmo salar (Atlantic salmon) were designated the type host of S. salmonicida due to the lack of a wild host [ 27 ]. Based on current knowledge, Brown trout or Arctic charr should probably have been chosen as type host of S. salmonicida , however a formal redescription must then be undertaken. No reference material or sequence data are available from the original description of Spironucleus elegans (type host: amphibians) [ 59 ], although Brugerolle et al. [ Fine Jewelry Genuine Morganite Smokey Quartz and DiamondAccent 3Stone Ring Sfz9c8twrp
] provided a valuable ultrastructural description. Based on morphology, Poynton et al. [ David Yurman 95mm Pure Form Smooth Bracelet with Diamonds 5acphG
] considered a hexamitid isolated from angelfish to be different from S. elegans and thus established S. vortens . The conspecificity of S. vortens and S. elegans was later questioned due to the remarkable Fine Jewelry Round London Blue Topaz 10K Yellow Gold Pendant Necklace qJ7f1
similarities between the two species [ 1928 Jewelry 1928 Jewelry Crystal Round Filigree Drop Earrings GArwtX
], but has not been resolved. S. vortens (type host: Pterophyllum scalare (angelfish)) has been described from several species of aquarium fish and also from wild Leuciscus idus (ide) in Norway [ 61 ]. Subsequently, sequencing of the small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene revealed that the isolates from angelfish and ide were genetically more distant than S. salmonicida and S. barkhanus and therefore should be regarded as separate species [ Arizona Arizona Womens Clear Collar Necklace 13mMoPg5Jk
]. However, again no formal description has been made.

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Solicitation 17-565

Important Information for Proposers

A revised version of the (PAPPG) (NSF 18-1), is effective for proposals submitted, or due, on or after January 29, 2018. Please be advised that, depending on the specified due date, the guidelines contained in NSF 18-1 may apply to proposals submitted in response to this funding opportunity.


Full ProposalDeadline Date August 8, 2018

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As the nation continues to expand the horizon of opportunities and possibilities through advances in science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM), the need for a more diverse and well-prepared STEM workforce is also expanding [1]. The challenge of preparing citizens for the expanding workforce and the changing workplace environments calls for new innovations in STEM education [2]. ITEST is a research and development program that supports projects to promote PreK-12 student interests and capacities to participate in the STEM and information and communications technology (ICT) workforce of the future. The ITEST program supports research on the design, development, implementation, and selective spread of innovative strategies for engaging students in technology-rich experiences that: (1) increase student awareness of STEM occupations; (2) motivate students to pursue appropriate education pathways to STEM occupations; or (3) develop disciplinary-based knowledge and practices, or promote critical thinking, reasoning skills, or communication skills needed for entering STEM workforce sectors. ITEST projects may adopt an interdisciplinary focus that includes multiple STEM disciplines, focus on a single discipline, or focus on one or more sub-disciplines. The ITEST program supports projects that provide evidence for factors, instructional designs, and practices in formal and informal learning environments that broaden participation of students from underrepresented groups in STEM fields and related education and workforce domains. Projects that actively engage business and industry partners to better ensure that PreK-12 experiences foster the knowledge and skill-sets needed for emerging STEM occupations are strongly encouraged.


[1] National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. (2016). Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.

[2] National Research Council. (2012).Committee on Defining Deeper Learning and 21st Century Skills, J.W. Pellegrino and M.L. Hilton, Editors. Board on Testing and Assessment and Board on Science Education, Division of Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.


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Specific triggers for pathogenicity and onset of systemic infection are currently unknown, and may vary greatly between Spironucleus spp. due to differences in microhabitat preferences. The host immune system is likely to play a key role in protecting against Spironucleosis, however further work is required in order to categorise the immune response to Spironucleus infection, and understand subsequent methods of parasite evasion.

Physiology and biochemistry

Knowledge regarding the biochemistry and physiology of Spironucleus spp. is paramount in order to understand mechanisms of pathogenicity, and consequent exploitation of novel molecular pathways for chemotherapeutic control. This has been made possible as a result of optimisation of in vitro culture for several Spironucleus isolates (see Table 4 ).

Table 4

Table 4: In vitro culturing conditions reported for the different isolates of Spironucleus spp., including the source of the species and corresponding optimal culture medium composition and temperature (temperature range given in brackets). Reproduced from Millet [110].

Table 4:

Although detailed information on nutrient uptake, and pathways of carbon and nitrogen metabolism have not been investigated, a great deal on the physiology of fish diplomonads can be inferred from studies of nutritional and environmental conditions necessary for growth. This is especially true for S. vortens grown in vitro under aerobic conditions in stoppered tubes with ascorbate and cysteine to ensure removal of traces of O 2 [ Fine Jewelry Lab Created White Opal Sterling Silver 151mm Oval Hoop Earrings Qk7MTURU2
]. Extremely rapid trophozoite multiplication corresponds to a mean generation time of 1.79 h at 25°C [ 102 ]. Their copious production of H 2 ( Figure 4 ), a metabolic product rare amongst eukaryotes, strongly suggests similarities to other flagellate Novica Blue topaz cuff bracelet Heart of the Night 7P6z3
protists that thrive in low O 2 environments, i.e. the parabasalid trichomonads and many diplomonads [ VIDA Charm Bracelet Tropicana by VIDA 00skt8
]. The progressive diminution of the aerobic life-style typical of their freeliving ancestors, together with multiple lateral transfer of genes of bacterial origins have enabled these parasitic organisms to prosper energetically without the traits of their mitochondriate free-living counterparts [ 104 ]. Loss of a cytochrome-mediated respiratory chain driven electron transport system and its coupled proton driven ATP synthase, along with the acquisition of hydrogenases, characterizes a novel redox-active organelle, the hydrogenosome [ Liz Claiborne Liz Claiborne Clear 14mm Stud Earrings tCdRyPW0
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]. Hydrogen production in S. vortens is even more rapid than in Trichomonas vaginalis and is similarly inhibited under microaerobic conditions. Cyanide- and COsensitivity in both organisms strongly suggests that the hydrogenase responsible is of the Fe-only category [ Orton West Orton West Ingot Key Ring Silver Silver Colour 6nfCVN
]. This conclusion has been validated for T. vaginalis by redox properties and furthermore by electron paramagnetic resonance spectra, a powerful technique frequently employed in the characterization of metal centres in ironsulphur proteins, such as hydrogenase [ Novica Amethyst strand necklace Natures Wisdom X41Ar07HfX
]. Identification of an Fehydrogenase- like sequence in the Fine Jewelry 14K Yellow Gold Captured Cubic Zirconia Hoop Earrings ELHk0OQX
of S. barkhanus strongly supports these conclusions [ 103 ]. One of the mechanisms proposed for metronidazole reductive activation prior to growth inhibition and cell death in S. vortens is evident from the observation of its inhibition of hydrogenase activity and H 2 production [ 103 , Novica Sterling silver button earrings Eagle in Flight 3wzUOoa
]. Hydrogenase inhibition occurs by competition by the drug for the reducing equivalents of metabolizable substrates.

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